Facts about deer and their types

Deer is a hove, cud-chewing, mammal with a four-chambered stomach, found on almost all continents except Australia and Antarctica, Africa has only one native species, the Red Deer, confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. Different species of deer live in different habitats. The habitats range from cold tundra to the wet tropical rainforests.

Deer weights generally range from 30 to 250 kilograms, though the Northern Pudu averages 10 kilograms and the moose averages 431 kilograms .

Male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer) and female reindeer grow and shed new antlers each year. Deer generally have agile, compact bodies and long powerful legs. Deer are also excellent jumpers, fast runners and swimmers.

Nearly all deer have a facial gland in front of each eye. The gland contains a strongly scented pheromone, used to mark its home range. Bucks of a wide range of species open these glands wide when angry or excited. Deer also have a sufficiently good night vision.

Deer are selective feeders. They are usually browsers, and primarily feed on leaves, lichen, grass, shoots and berries.

For most deer in modern English usage, the male is called a "buck" and the female is a "doe", but the terms vary with dialect, and especially according to the size of the species.

For many larger deer the male is a "stag", while for other larger deer the same words are used as for cattle: "bull" and "cow".

The male Red Deer is a "hart", and the female is a "hind".

Terms for young deer vary similarly, with that of most being called a "fawn" and that of the larger species "calf"; young of the smallest kinds may be a kid.

A group of deer of any kind is a "herd".

Below are listed few types of deer



The Sambar is a large deer native to southern and southeast Asia.

The appearance and size of sambar vary widely across their range. In general, they attain a height of 102 to 160 centimetres at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 546 kg, though more typically 150 to 320 kg.

The large, rugged antlers are typically rusine, the brow tines being simple and the beams forked at the tip, so that they have only three times. As with most deer, only the males have antlers.

Sambar are found in habitats ranging from tropical seasonal forests, subtropical mixed forests to tropical rainforests. They are seldom found far from water.

Sambar are nocturnal or crepuscular.



The reindeer also known as the caribou in North America, is a deer from the Arctic and Subarctic.

Reindeer vary considerably in color and size. The reindeer is the only species of deer in which both sexes grow antlers, though they are typically larger in males. Males lose their antlers every year and then regrow them afresh.

Originally, the reindeer was found in Scandinavia, eastern Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and northern China.

180–214 cm
92–210 kg
162–205 cm
79–120 cm

Reindeer are ruminants, having a four-chambered stomach. They mainly eat lichens in winter, especially reindeer moss. However, they also eat the leaves of willows and birches, as well as sedges and grasses.


Fallow Deer

The Fallow Deer is common species is native to western Eurasia, but has been introduced widely elsewhere. The male is known as a buck, the female is a doe, and the young a fawn.

Shoulder height
Adult bucks
140–160 cm
85–95 cm
50–80 kg
Female does
130–150 cm
75–85 cm
75–85 cm

Fawns are born in spring at about 30 cm and weigh around 4.5 kg. The life span is around 12–16 years.

Only bucks have antlers, which are broad and shovel-shaped (palmate) from 3 years. In the first two years the antler is a single spike. They are grazing animals; their preferred habitat is mixed woodland and open grassland.

Agile and fast in case of danger, fallow deer can run up to a maximum speed of 28 mph (45 km/h) over short distances. Fallow deer can also make jumps up to 1.75 metres high and up to 5 metres in length.


White-tailed deer

The white-tailed deer also known as the Virginia deer or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States (all but five of the states), Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru.

The deer's coat is a reddish-brown in the spring and summer and turns to a grey-brown throughout the fall and winter.

The North American male white-tailed deer usually weighs 60 to 130 kg but, in rare cases, bucks in excess of 159 kg.

Whitetail deer eat large varieties of food, commonly eating legumes and foraging on other plants, including shoots, leaves, cacti, and grasses. They also eat acorns, fruit, and corn. Their special stomach allows them to eat some things that humans cannot, such as mushrooms and Red Sumac that are poisonous to humans.

Tufted Deer
Mule Deer
Southern Pudú
Marsh Deer
Gray Brocket
South Andean Deer
Siberian Roe Deer
Eld's Deer
Bawean Deer
Père David's Deer