Falcons and their types

The falcon is a long-winged bird of prey and is a strong and powerful flier. Falcon have thin tapered wings which enable them to fly at high speed and to change direction rapidly. Their powerful flying ability makes falcons excellent hunters. Falcon scoop down from great heights and use theirt feet to capture the prey.

There are about 40 species of falcons. Most falcons are 20-60 cm in lenght and weigh aroung 2 kg. Falcons have a bullet shaped body with a long tail. They have a short neck and a short hooked beak. They have a sharp strong claws located on long toes.

Falcons live in a wide variety of habtats including grasslands, deserts, forests, sea coast and the artic tundra. Falcons do not make nests to live or lay eggs. Female falcons lay their eggs in tree holes, on cliffs in old nests and on rocky ledges

Falcons have exceptional powers of vision; the visual acuity of one species has been measured at 2.6 times that of a normal human.

Below are listed few types of falcons


Peregrine Falcons

The Peregrine Falcon , also known as the Peregrine and historically as the Duck Hawk in North America.A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-gray back, barred white underparts, and a black head and "moustache", typical of bird-eating raptors.

Peregrine falcons have eight times better vision than humans. They can see an object measuring 0 cm in length froma adistance of more that on kilometer. Peregrine falcons are the fastest flying bird on earth. Peregrine Falcons have been recorded diving at speeds of 200 miles per hour (320 km/h).

The Peregrine Falcon has a body length of 34 to 58 centimetres and a wingspan of around 80 to 120 centimetres.Males weigh 440 to 750 grams and the noticeably larger females weigh 910 to 1,500 grams.

The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are usually bluish black to slate gray with indistinct darker barring, the wingtips are black.

The Peregrine Falcon feeds almost exclusively on medium-sized birds such as pigeons and doves, waterfowl, songbirds, and waders.



The Gyrfalcon is the largest falcon in the world. Males are 48 to 61 cm long, weigh 805 to 1350 g and have a wingspan from 110 to 130 cm . Females are bulkier and larger, at 51 to 65 cm long, 124 to 160 cm wingspan, and of 1180 to 2100 g weight.

Gryfalcons have a white, gray or black colored body with bars and streaks throughtout. They have long pointed wings and a long tail. Gryfalcons have a large eyes and a yellow bill with a dark tip.

The Gyrfalcon breeds on Arctic coasts and the islands of North America, Europe, and Asia. The Gyrfalcon is a bird of tundra and mountains, with cliffs or a few patches of trees.

It feeds only on birds and mammals Most prey is killed on the ground, whether they are captured there or, if the victim is a flying bird, forced to the ground.



Lanner Falcon

The Lanner Falcon is a large bird of prey that breeds in Africa, southeast Europe and just into Asia.

It is a large falcon, at 43–50 cm length with a wingspan of 95–105 cm.

The Lanner Falcon is a bird of open country and savanna. It usually hunts by horizontal pursuit, rather than the Peregrine Falcon's stoop from a height, and takes mainly bird prey in flight.

It lays 3-4 eggs on a cliff ledge nest, or occasionally in an old stick nest in a tree.



The Merlin is a small species of falcon from the Northern Hemisphere. A bird of prey once known colloquially as a pigeon hawk in North America,the Merlin breeds in the northern Holarctic; some migrate to subtropical and northern tropical regions in winter.\

Merlins inhabit fairly open country, such as willow or birch scrub, shrubland, but also taiga forest, parks, grassland such as steppe and prairies, or moorland. They prefer a mix of low and medium-height vegetation with some trees, and avoid dense forests as well as treeless arid regions.

The Merlin is 24–33 cm long with a 50–67 cm wingspan. Males average at about 165 g and females are typically about 230 g.

The male Merlin has a blue-grey back, ranging from almost black to silver-grey in different subspecies. Its underparts are buff- to orange-tinted and more or less heavily streaked with black to reddish brown. The female and immature are brownish-grey to dark brown above, and whitish buff spotted with brown below.

Barbary Falcon
Peale's Falcon
Saker Falcon
Black Falcon
Brown Falcon
New Zealand Falcon
Bat Falcon
Aplomado Falcon
Amur Falcon
Red-footed Falcon
Red-necked Falcon