World Famous Explorers - Christopher

Columbus
Christopher Columbus birth date not know but before 31 October 1451 in Genoa, Republic of Genoa.

Christopher Columbus was an explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents.
During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire.

Between 1492 and 1503, Christopher Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas, all of them under the sponsorship of the Crown of Castile. These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the American continents, and are thus of enormous significance in Western history.

Christopher Columbus
 
The voyages of Christopher Columbus are as below.
map

First voyage : On the evening of 3 August 1492, Christopher Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships: a larger carrack, the Santa María ex-Gallega ("Galician"), and two smaller caravels, the Pinta ("Painted") and the Santa Clara, nicknamed the Niña (lit. "Girl") after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer.

Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands, which belonged to the Castile. Then Columbus saw the land and called the island (in what is now The Bahamas) San Salvador.

Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba, where he landed on 28 October ge then continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola, where he landed on 5 December and then founded the settlement of La Navidad at the site of present-day Môle-Saint-Nicolas, Haiti. He kept sailing along the northern coast of Hispaniola with a single ship, until he encountered Pinzón and the Pinta on 6 January. On 13 January 1493 Columbus made his last stop in the New World. He landed on the Samaná Peninsula. Columbus headed for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon. He anchored next to the King's harbor patrol ship on 4 March 1493 in Portugal. After spending more than one week in Portugal, he set sail for Spain. He crossed the bar of Saltes and entered the harbor of Palos on 15 March 1493.

Second voyage : Columbus left the port of Cadiz on 24 September 1493, with a fleet of 17 ships carrying 1,200 men and the supplies to establish permanent colonies in the New World.The colonists included priests, farmers, and soldiers. As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands, from which it departed on 13 October. On 3 November, Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Santa María la Galante. After sailing past Les Saintes (Los Santos, "The Saints"), he arrived at the island of Guadeloupe, which he named Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe, Cáceres, Spain. He explored that island from 4 to 10 November.

The exact course of Columbus's voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including Montserrat, Antigua, Redonda, Nevis, Saint Kitts, Sint Eustatius, Saba, Saint Martin and Saint Croix .

Columbus also sighted the chain of the Virgin Islands, which he named Islas de Santa Úrsula y las Once Mil Vírgenes. He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed in Puerto Rico, which he named San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist. On 22 November Columbus returned to Hispaniola. Columbus left Hispaniola on 24 April 1494, arriving at Cuba on 30 April.

He explored the southern coast of Cuba, which he believed to be part of a peninsula attached to mainland Asia, as well as several nearby islands, including the Isle of Pines. He reached Jamaica on 5 May. He retraced his route to Hispaniola, arriving on 20 August, before he finally returned to Spain.

Third voyage : On 30 May 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World. Columbus led his fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo, his wife's native land. From 4 to 12 August Columbus explored the Gulf of Paria, which separates Trinidad from what is now Venezuela, near the delta of the Orinoco River. He then touched the mainland of South America at the Paria Peninsula. In poor health, Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August.

Fourth voyage : Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. He left Cadiz on 11 May 1502, with his flagship Santa María and the vessels Gallega, Vizcaína, and Santiago de Palos. On 15 June they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on 30 July. On 14 August he landed on the continental mainland at Puerto Castilla, near Trujillo, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, before arriving in Almirante Bay, Panama on 16 October. Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north.

On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands, naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there. His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on 25 June 1503 they were beached in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica.

For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica. Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain, on 7 November.

Christopher Columbusdied on 20 May 1506 in Valladolid, Crown of Castile, in present-day Spain.

 
 

 

 

 

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