Types of forests
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. A forest is a large areas where large number of trees grow close to each other.

Forests can be classified in different ways, one such way is in terms of the "biome" in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species whether they are evergreen or deciduousand another distinction is whether the forests are composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved) trees, or mixed.
Stems have four main functions which are:
  1. Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits.
  2. Transport of fluids from roots to leaves and food from leaves to different parts of plant.
  3. Storage of nutrients.
  4. The production of new living tissue. The normal life span of plant cells is one to three years.
Boreal forests :
Boreal forests also known as Taiga occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen and coniferous.

Taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome and makes up 29% of the world's forest cover. In North America it covers most of inland Canada and Alaska as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States and is known as the Northwoods. It also covers most of Sweden, Finland, much of Norway, much of Russia from St. Petersburg in the west to the Pacific ocean (including much of Siberia), northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongolia, and northern Japan on the island of Hokkaidō.
The forests of the taiga are largely coniferous, dominated by larch, spruce, fir, and pine.Although the taiga is dominated by coniferous forests, some broadleaf trees also occur, notably birch, aspen, willow, and rowan. Many smaller herbaceous plants grow closer to the ground.

The boreal forest, or taiga, supports a large range of animals. Canada's boreal forest includes 85 species of mammals, 130 species of fish, and an estimated 32,000 species of insects. The taiga is home to a number of large herbivorous mammals, such as moose and reindeer/caribou. Some areas of the more southern closed boreal forest also have populations of other deer species such as the elk and roe deer.There is also a range of rodent species including beaver, squirrel, mountain hare, snowshoe hare, and vole. Some larger mammals, such as bears, eat heartily during the summer in order to gain weight, and then go into hibernation during the winter. More than 300 species of birds have their nesting grounds in the taiga.
Temprate forests :

Temperate zones support both broadleaf deciduous forests (e.g., temperate deciduous forest) and evergreen coniferous forests (e.g., temperate coniferous forests and temperate rainforests). Warm temperate zones support broadleaf evergreen forests, including laurel forests.

Temperate broadleaf deciduous and mixed forests has the typical structure which includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 33 to 66 m high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to 15 m shorter than the canopy. The top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy which is composed of smaller mature trees, saplings, and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy. Below the sub-canopy is the shrub layer, composed of low growing woody plants. Typically the lowest growing and most diverse layer is the ground cover or herbaceous layer. Characteristic dominant broadleaf trees in this biome include oaks, beeches, maples and birches.The term "mixed forest" comes from the inclusion of coniferous trees as a canopy component of these forests. Typical coniferous trees include: Pines , firs and spruces.

Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. These forests are rather simple, generally consisting of two layers: an overstory and understory. Some forests may support an intermediate layer of shrubs.Temperate evergreen forests are common in the coastal areas of regions that have mild winters and heavy rainfall, or inland in drier climates or mountain areas. Coniferous forests can be found in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Many species of trees inhabit these forests including cedar, cypress, douglas-fir, fir, juniper, kauri, pine, podocarpus, spruce, redwood and yew.

Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive high rainfall. Temperate rain forests occur only in seven regions around the world: the Pacific temperate rain forests of the Pacific Northwest, the Valdivian temperate rain forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, northwest Europe (small pockets in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Iceland and a somewhat larger area in Norway), southern Japan, and the eastern Black Sea-Caspian Sea region of Turkey and Georgia to northern Iran. The moist conditions of temperate rain forests generally support an understory of mosses, ferns and some shrubs. Temperate rain forests can be temperate coniferous forests or temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. The temperate coniferous rain forests sustain the highest levels of biomass in any terrestrial ecosystem and are notable for trees of massive proportions, including Coast Redwood, Douglas-fir, Sitka Spruce, Alerce and Kauri.

Laurel forest is a subtropical or mild temperate forest, found in areas with high humidity, as well as relatively stable and mild temperatures. The forest is characterized by tree species with evergreen, glossy and elongated leaves, known as "laurophyll" or "lauroid". Flora from the Laurel family Lauraceae may also be prominent, or have an association with the forest. Laurel forests are characterized by evergreen and hardwood trees, reaching up to 40 meters in height.

Tropical and subtropical forests :

Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, tropical and subtropical dry forests, and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests.

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests also know as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome.Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests are common in several terrestrial ecozones, including parts of the Afrotropic (equatorial Africa), Indomalaya (parts of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), the Neotropic (northern South America and Central America), Australasia (eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, northern and eastern Australia), and Oceania (the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean). About half of the world's tropical rainforests are in the South American countries of Brazil and Peru. Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Though these forests occur in climates that are warm year-round, and may receive several hundred centimeters of rain per year, they have long dry seasons which last several months and vary with geographic location. Deciduous trees predominate in most of these forests, and during the drought a leafless period occurs, which varies with species type. Because trees lose moisture through their leaves, the shedding of leaves allows trees such as teak and mountain ebony to conserve water during dry periods. The newly bare trees open up the canopy layer, enabling sunlight to reach ground level and facilitate the growth of thick underbrush. Trees on moister sites and those with access to ground water tend to be evergreen. Three tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregions, the East Deccan dry evergreen forests, the Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests, and the Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests, are characterized by evergreen trees.Though less biologically diverse than rainforests, tropical dry forests are home to a wide variety of wildlife including monkeys, deer, large cats, parrots, various rodents, and ground dwelling birds.

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a forest biome. They are located in regions of semi-humid climate at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Most tropical and subtropical coniferous forest ecoregions are found in the Nearctic and Neotropic ecozones, from Mexico to Nicaragua and on the Greater Antilles, Bahamas, and Bermuda. Other tropical and subtropical coniferous forests ecoregions occur in Asia.


Food from plants
Plant stem and its function
Types of forests
Types of palm trees
Types of roots
What's in a seed?

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