Vestibular System Of Human
Vestibular system

The vestibular system, which contributes to balance in most mammals and to the sense of spatial orientation, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about movement and sense of balance.

As movements consist of rotations and translations, the vestibular system comprises two components:

The semicircular canal system, which indicate rotational movements;

And the otoliths a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, which indicate linear accelerations.

The vestibular system sends signals primarily to the neural structures that control eye movements, and to the muscles that keep a creature upright.
 
Semicircular canal system

The semicircular canal system detects rotational movements. The semicircular canals are its main tools to achieve this detection.Since the world is three-di

- Movement of fluid within the horizontal semicircular canal corresponds to rotation of the head around a vertical axis (i.e. the neck), as when doing a pirouette(a controlled turn on one leg) as in ballet .

- The anterior and posterior semicircular canals detect rotations of the head in the sagittal plane as when nodding, and in the frontal / coronal plane, as when cartwheeling.

body planes
Both anterior and posterior canals are orientated at approximately 45° between frontal and sagittal planes.mensional, the vestibular system contains three semicircular canals in each labyrinth which are approximately orthogonal (right angles) to each other, and are called the horizontal (or lateral), the anterior semicircular canal (or superior) and the posterior (or inferior) semicircular canal.
 
Otolithic organ

While the semicircular canals respond to rotations, the otolithic organs sense linear accelerations. Humans have two on each side, one called utricle, the other saccule. The otoconia crystals in the otoconia layer rest on a viscous gel layer, and are heavier than their surroundings. Therefore they get displaced during linear acceleration, which in turn deflects the ciliary bundles of the hair cells and thus produces a sensory signal.

Humans can sense head tilting and linear acceleration even in dark environments because of the orientation of two groups of hair cell bundles on either side of the striola. Hair cells on opposite sides move with mirror symmetry, so when one side is moved, the other is inhibited. The opposing effects caused by a tilt of the head, causing differential sensory inputs from the hair cell bundles allow humans to tell which way the head is tilting,Sensory information is then sent to the brain, which can respond with appropriate corrective actions to the nervous and muscular systems to ensure that balance and awareness are maintained.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Vestibular system

 
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