Spheres of the earth
The whole the system of earth is referred as ecosphere.The Earth's spheres are the many "spheres" into which the planet Earth is divided.The four most recognized spheres are the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere.

The cover of the air around the earth is called atmosphere. various gases, water vapour and dust particles are the components of atmosphere.

Air is the name given to the atmosphere used in breathing and photosynthesis. Dry air contains roughly by volume 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%.

The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The air close to earth's surface is dense and as we go higher the air becomes thin.

The ozone layer, which absorbs ultraviolet energy from the Sun, is located primarily in the stratosphere, at altitudes of 15 to 35 km. The ozone gas protects the living world from the harmful rays of sun.

Structure of the atmosphere:

Exosphere : The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. It is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.

Thermosphere : Thermosphere is the region between Exosphere and Mesosphere. The temperature of this layer can rise to 1,500 °C

Mesosphere : The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km . It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. The mesopause, the temperature minimum that marks the top of the mesosphere, is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around −85 °C.

Stratosphere : The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km. Temperature increases with height due to increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, which restricts turbulence and mixing.

Troposphere : The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 9 km at the poles and 17 km at the equator. The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of the atmosphere.

The biosphere also called the zone of life on Earth, a closed and self-regulating system. The life that exists in the lithosphere, hydrosphere adn atmosphere of the earth together make biosphere. The biosphere is composed of all living organisms. Plants, animals, and one-celled organisms are all part of the biosphere.The biosphere is also found under the ground and in the water bodies up to certain depth. similarly, it exists up to the attitude to which oxygen is available.

The actual thickness of the biosphere on earth is difficult to measure. Birds typically fly at altitudes of 650 to 1,800 metres, and fish that live deep underwater can be found down to -8,372 metres in the Puerto Rico Trench.

Our biosphere is divided into a number of biomes, inhabited by broadly similar flora and fauna. On land, biomes are separated primarily by latitude. Terrestrial biomes lying within the Arctic and Antarctic Circles are relatively barren of plant and animal life, while most of the more populous biomes lie near the equator. Terrestrial organisms in temperate and Arctic biomes have relatively small amounts of total biomass.

The hydrosphere in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. All types of water bodies make the hydrosphere.

The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass.

An extensve and huge storages of salty water on earth surface are called oceans. Approximately 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean. The Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian and the Artic are the four oceans. All these oceans are continous.

Sea are salt water bodies smaller in size as compared to oceans. Most of the seas are connected to oceans. Some of the seas are totally or largely enclosed by land. Such seas are called enclosed seas.

Some salt water bodies have land on three sides called bays.

The surface of the earth and the land below it is called lithosphere. The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the Earth. The Earth consists of three main layers: the core, or the inner layer; the mantle, in the middle; and the crust, which includes the continents and ocean floor. The lithosphere, which is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) deep in most places, includes the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust.

Landforms like mountains, plateaus, plains and different types of rocks are the components of the lithosphere. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. It covers the entire surface of the earth from the top of Mount Everest to the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

The lithosphere is always moving, but very slowly. It is broken into huge sections called tectonic plates. The movement of the lithosphere, called plate tectonics, is the reason behind a lot of Earth's most dramatic geologic events. When one plate moves beneath another, or when two plates rub together, they can create earthquakes and volcanoes.


Change in state of water
Water and it's states
Spheres of the earth
Nutrients & Deficiency Of Nutrients & It's Effect
Interesting Facts About Human Organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Endocannabinoids system
Endocrine system
Excretory system
Integumentary system
Immune system
Lymphatic system
Nervous system
Respiratory system
Musculoskeletal system
Vestibular system

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